Имена финно-угорского мира

Раздел «Имена» содержит справочную информацию о выдающихся личностях финно-угорского мира. В данном разделе вы найдете сведенья, как о реальных исторических личностях, так и о легендарных героях народов уральской языковой семьи.

«Имена» - это уникальный свод описаний, составленный силами пользователей нашего сайта, в ходе конкурса «Имя финно-угорского мира», который проходил на басе сайта инфоцентра FINUGOR.RU в 2011 году.

Раздел «Имена» входит в «Народную Энциклопедию». Инфоцентр FINUGOR планирует расширять содержание «Энциклопедии».

C 16 мая по 7 декабря 2011 года инфоцентр проводил международный конкурс «Выдающиеся личности финно-угорских и самодийских народов» («Имя финно-угорского мира»). В ходе конкурса были выявлены 56 выдающихся личностей (по восьми номинациям), представляющие различные народы уральской языковой семьи. Международный конкурс проводился в России, Эстонии, Финляндии, Венгрии и других странах с целью популяризации информации о выдающихся представителях финно-угорских и самодийских народов и личностях, внесших большой вклад в изучение, сохранение и развитие языков и культур этих народов.

Будем рады, если вы внесете свой вклад. Если у вас есть уникальный справочный материал о культуре финно-угорских и самодийских народов, вы можете выслать его нам на адрес editor@FINUGOR.com

Loránd (Roland) Eötvös (1848-1919) is one of the greatest figure of the Hungarian natural science. His name denotes a physical unit , a natural phenomenon. After he died, several institutions were named after him.In his life he was a well-known and respected personality of the Hungarian and the international scientific community. His name is related to the establishment of a new sience, the Geophysics.As a professor of the university, which later on was named after him, and than as the minister of education, he gained everlasting merits in the popularization and the advance of science.Most people were fascinated by his colorful personality. He often said, he was prouder of his sport successes than his scientific descoveries. The mountaineering "Hungarian professor" was so popular in South Tirol, that a peak in the Dolomites was named after him.He was an enthusiastic Photographer. He made hundreds of stereoscopic slides on his mountaineering and scientific expeditions. His photographs are interesting historical documents.BiographyBorn in 1848, the year of the Hungarian revolution, Eötvös was the son of József Eötvös, a well-known poet, writer, and liberal politician, who was cabinet minister at the time, and played an important part in 19th century Hungarian intellectual and political life. Loránd Eötvös first studied law, but soon switched to physics and went abroad to study in Heidelberg and Königsberg. After earning his doctorate, he became a university professor in Budapest and played a leading part in Hungarian science for almost half a century. He gained international recognition first by his innovative work on capillarity, then by his refined experimental methods and extensive field studies in gravity. Eötvös is remembered today for his experimental work on gravity, in particular his study of the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass (the so-called weak equivalence principle) and his study of the gravitational gradient on the Earth's surface. The weak equivalence principle plays a prominent role in relativity theory and the Eötvös experiment was cited by Albert Einstein in his 1916 paper The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity. Measurements of the gravitational gradient are important in applied geophysics, such as the location of petroleum deposits. The CGS unit for gravitational gradient is named the eotvos in his honor.From 1886 until his death, Loránd Eötvös researched and taught in the University of Budapest, which in 1950 was renamed after him.See:Eötvös Loránd Virtual Museum 
 Joulupukki is the Finnish name for Santa Claus or Father Christmas. The name Joulupukki literally means Yule Goat or Christmas Goat. This name is likely to come from an old Finnish tradition, where people dressed in goat hides, the apparition being called a nuuttipukki, used to go around from house to house after Christmas eating leftover food.Today Joulupukki looks and behaves mostly like his American version, but there are differences. Joulupukki's workshop is situated in Korvatunturi, whereas the American counterpart resides in Greenland. Instead of sneaking in through the chimney during the night, he (traditionally played by a father, a grandfather or an uncle, today by a Rent-a-Santa) knocks on the front door during the Christmas eve celebration. When he comes in, his first words are traditionally "Onkos täällä kilttejä lapsia?" (Are there (any) nice children here?)He usually wears warm red clothes, uses a walking stick, and travels in a sleigh driven by a number of reindeer. The popular song "Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer" in its Finnish translation, Petteri Punakuono, has led to Rudolph's general acceptance in the mythology as Joulupukki's lead reindeer. Joulupukki has a wife, Joulumuori ("Old Lady Christmas"), but tradition has not got much to say of her.The location of Joulupukki's workshop comes from a children's radio show called Markus-sedän lastentunti ("Children's hour with Uncle Markus") hosted by Markus Rautio and broadcast by The Finland's National Broadcasting Corporation between years 1927-1956. YLE (Yleisradio in Finnish, Rundradion in Swedish), Finlands National Broadcasting Company, was founded in 1926. ... Finland's Joulupukki received over 700,000 letters from children all over the world in 2006, according to a news report by Finland's National Broadcasting Corporation, YLE.The US-based Coca-Cola Santa Claus was designed by the son of Finnish emigrant, Haddon Sundblom.One interesting theory about the origins of Joulupukki and his flying reindeer, comes from the aboriginal Sami people of Lapland. In the forests there is a common poisonous mushroom, Amanita muscaria that is red with white dots. The shamans of Sami used to feed this mushroom to the reindeer, whereby the intestinal tract of the reindeer would filter out the poison, but leave the intoxicating substances. The piss of the reindeer would then be collected, and used as a hallucinogenic by the shamans. The shamans would often have out-of-the-body experiences and fly in the sky, returning through the chimney hole of their tent or cottage to their bodies. This shamanistic tradition would nicely explaing the flying reindeer, the use of chimneys, and even the red-white colouring of Joulupukki.http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Joulupukki
Arvo Pärt (born 11 September 1935) is an Estonian classical composer and one of the most prominent living composers of sacred music. Since the late 1970s, Pärt has worked in a minimalist style that employs his self-made compositional technique, tintinnabuli. His music also finds its inspiration and influence from Gregorian chant.Pärt was born in Paide, Järva County, Estonia. A prolonged struggle with Soviet officials led him to emigrate with his wife and their two sons in 1980. He lived first in Vienna, Austria, where he took Austrian citizenship, and then re-located to Berlin, Germany. He returned to Estonia around the turn of the 21st century and now lives in Tallinn.Pärt's oeuvre is generally divided into two periods. His early works ranged from rather neo-classical styles influenced by Shostakovich, Prokofiev, and Bartók. He then began to compose using Schoenberg's twelve-tone technique and serialism. This, however, not only earned the ire of the Soviet establishment, but also proved to be a creative dead-end. When early works were banned by Soviet censors, Pärt entered the first of several periods of contemplative silence, during which he studied choral music from the 14th to 16th centuries.In this context, Pärt's biographer, Paul Hillier, observed that "He had reached a position of complete despair in which the composition of music appeared to be the most futile of gestures, and he lacked the musical faith and will-power to write even a single note."The spirit of early European polyphony informed the composition of Pärt's transitional Third Symphony (1971); and thereafter, he immersed himself in early music, re-investigating the roots of Western music. He studied plainsong, Gregorian chant, and the emergence of polyphony in the European Renaissance.The music that began to emerge after this period was radically different. This period of new compositions included Fratres, Cantus In Memoriam Benjamin Britten, and Tabula Rasa. Pärt describes the music of this period as tintinnabuli—like the ringing of bells. Spiegel im Spiegel (1978) is a well-known example which has been used in many films. The music is characterised by simple harmonies, often single unadorned notes, or triads, which form the basis of Western harmony. These are reminiscent of ringing bells. Tintinnabuli works are rhythmically simple and do not change tempo. Another characteristic of Pärt's later works is that they are frequently settings for sacred texts, although he mostly chooses Latin or the Church Slavonic language used in Orthodox liturgy instead of his native Estonian language. Large-scale works inspired by religious texts include St. John Passion, Te Deum, and Litany. Choral works from this period include Magnificat and The Beatitudes.Of his popularity, Steve Reich has written: "Even in Estonia, Arvo was getting the same feeling that we were all getting .... I love his music, and I love the fact that he is such a brave, talented man .... He's completely out of step with the zeitgeist and yet he's enormously popular, which is so inspiring. His music fulfills a deep human need that has nothing to do with fashion."Pärt's music came to public attention in the West, largely thanks to Manfred Eicher who recorded several of Pärt's compositions for ECM Records starting in 1984.Pärt was honoured as the featured composer of the 2008 RTÉ Living Music Festival in Dublin, Ireland. He was also commissioned by Louth Contemporary Music Society to compose a new choral work based on St. Patricks Breastplate, which premiered in 2008 in Louth, Ireland. The new work is called The Deers Cry. This is the composer's first Irish commission, having its debut in Drogheda and Dundalk in February 2008.His recent (2008) Symphony No. 4 is named “Los Angeles” and was dedicated to Mikhail Khodorkovsky. It is Pärt's first symphony written in over 37 years, since 1971's Symphony No. 3. It premiered in Los Angeles, California, at the Walt Disney Concert Hall on 10 January 2009, and has been nominated for a GRAMMY for Best Classical Contemporary Composition.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arvo_P%C3%A4rt 






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